In 2009, the ICC issued an arrest warrant for El-Bashir for war crimes and crime against humanity for his conduct of war in Darfur. However, the real cause of animus of the West is the enforcement of Shariah as the law of the land by president who took power in 1989 and has followed a pro-China policy.
Sudan produces 500,000 barrels of oil a day. South Sudan gets 98 percent of its revenue from the crude, while 45 percent of the Khartoum budget comes from oil which makes up around 90 percent of its exports. Most oil reserves are in the Abyei region bordering the North and South. The North has pipelines and refineries; the South about 75 percent of the reserves. The sharing of the oil revenue has thus complicated the picture further and become the most contentious post referendum issue.
Peace making efforts continued unsuccessfully with the intervention of African Union. Finally UNSC intervened and vide resolution 1574 of December 2004 a Comprehensive Peace Accord was signed, that provided formation of a National Unity government with SPLA. The agreement also provided limited autonomy to South for 5 years. If National Unity government failed to meet Southern aspirations, a plebiscite was to be held in January 2011 to decide succession from Khartoum. The plebiscite as stated above was held with 98% voting in favour of independence.
The inherent instability of the peace deal and contentious issues of sharing oil revenues and settlement of border will keep Sudan unstable and crisis-ridden and thus removed as a potential factor of Muslim power in the region.
The partition of Sudan – the largest Muslim country in Africa is yet another painful chapter in the history of US machination since President Bush to remake the map of Middle East and the continuing onslaught against Muslim countries beginning with invasion of Iraq.
Sudan was the first country to recognize the succession state but how an average Sudanese felt at this unfortunate development is best reflected in a op-ed commentary by Muhammad Ali Saleh a Muslim Northern, now a naturalized American – “A few months ago, Time magazine had a cover story with the question, “Is American Islamophobic?” It mentioned that more than half of Americans had a negative attitude towards Islam and Muslims and that almost half of them said that Muslims believed in ideas contrary to basic American ideals of freedom and justice. The magazine said Islamophobia influenced domestic and foreign US Policies.
“I believe that my adopted country’s role in partitioning my native country was driven by Islamopobia. This makes me sad and angry.