Pakistan needs clean oil technology
May 27, 2011
The lubricants base oil so produced by the refineries cannot be used unless their physical and chemical properties suiting a particular type of machine are compounded. The light and heavy base oils are mixed in suitable proportions to adjust their thickness to engine requirements. Further, during use to control lubricants foaming, rust prevention, to act as detergent, non-freezing in cold climate, anti-oxidant and thermally stable product is needed for which some organic metallic additives have to be added so that the lubricant can reduce friction and heat in the engine, act as a coolant and sealant liquid. These additives are called poly-chloro-bi-phenyls (PCBs) and poly-chloro-ter-phenyls (PTBs) etc.
These additives have been found to be environmentally hazardous and can cause cancer of lever, kidney and suffocation, deformities in newly born children and other ailments if consumed in high dosages. The regular contact of used lubricants on human skin or entry of its additives in the food chain through the burning of used lubricants sludge in brick kilns as a source of heat, whereby the ashes are washed down to the underground water table in rainy season can cause recycling of PCBs in agricultural products.
These additives are therefore to be either thermally destroyed or safely recycled so that they do not enter the air, water or ground to find their ultimate way into food chain or water. These additives are very stable and only high incinerator temperatures might destroy them. Their safe disposal is necessary in compliance with the “National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). Though the Pakistan Environmental Protection Law has been enacted over two decades ago, specific attention has not been paid to spread of this deadly poison. An awareness campaign is necessary to inform the public about the harmful effects of such compounds.
The main bulk of lubricants base oil growth of uncertain consumption manufactured by National Oil Refinery Ltd and the other four refineries of Pakistan and more unfortunately waste oil; collected is catered to oil reclamation industry, which has hefty growth in Pakistan in the form of both legal and illegal plants and smuggling throughout western border belts. The illegal growth of the make shift plants in various congested areas of Karachi and other parts of Pakistan is menacingly spreading inside houses, hidden factories, and godowns, walled and green bushy areas. The same is the case of collectors of waste used lubricating oils and suppliers of waste oil who concentrate in streets bylines and motor oil depots on main roads. The products of various legal/illegal plants are sub-standard, stink and are of dark colour and the road side sale depots sell these duly packed and/or loose in popular brand containers; usually purchased by illiterate transporters and even by ordinary consumers who need cheaper oils and are in total darkness of the hazardous and devastating effects on the environment and machinery. The environmental disaster created by these domesticated industries can be well imagined as our masses are oblivious of toxic generated and users machine wear.
The dangerous sources attributable to global warming and adverse effects on life is sub-standard supply of petroleum products viz. petrol, diesel and kerosene containing sulphur contents ranging from 1000-1800 ppm of sulphur and other green house gases in enormous quantities . When these petroleum products are used their exhaust gases contain these greenhouse gases in huge quantities causing global warming-climate change and subsequent disasters caused by global warming-climate change. Most parts of the world including India have adopted EUROIV standards but so far GOP has totally neglected this heinous crime of not adapting to upgrade its petroleum products.
The other dangerous sources attributable to global warming and adverse effects on life in the lubricant sector alone in Pakistan include “Lubricants Sludge and Residues’, “Spurious oils”, “Carbon oil”, “Sludge oil”, “Rubber Oil”, “Polymer Oils”, and “Wax Oils”. The havocs caused by the use of above mentioned oils are immense and it is high time for the GOP to take care of these genuine hazardous issues.
It is alarming to note that in Pakistan all the “Reclamation/recycling plants for lubricating oils are based on “Dirty Oil Technology”.
“USE OF DIRTY OIL TECHNOLOGY FOR RECYCLING OF WASTE/DIRTY LUBRICATING OIL- ACID CLAY TECHNOLOGY INCLUDING LUBRICATING OIL OBTAINED FROM LUB.BASE OILS IN PAKISTANI REFINERIES.
I- Lubricating oils are obtained from lub.base oils through Pakistani refineries. To obtain lubricating oil containing required lubricants requirements. The lub.base oil is processed by the use of additives like PCBs and PTBs including solvents to obtain lubricating oil for commercial use. The sludge obtained must undergo through a “Non-acid high vacuum fractional distillation plant” as is used in “Clean Oil Technology”, else wise must be burnt in incinerators where the temperatures are in the range of 1500-1600 degrees centigrade whereby the harmful effects of the additives used can only be removed but the sludge so obtained is sold to brick kilns where the residue is mixed with saw dust or husk and is used as a heating source; the temperature of brick kilns is in the vicinity of 600-800 degrees centigrade which is not sufficient to remove the harmful toxic and hazardous effects of the additives.
II Waste/Dirty Lubricating oil is recycled through “Dirty Oil Technology-Acid Clay Technology.
Worldwide, where the governments care for avoidance of air pollution, water pollution and pollution of their food chain; The waste/ used lubricating oil from the vehicles and machinery is collected in cans and is sent to the recycling plants where this used/waste lubricating oil is recycled to obtain clean lubricating oil for further use by the use of “Clean Oil Technology”.
In Pakistan, the used/waste lubricating oil is collected from the workshops and places where oil is changed and is sold to the legal/illegal recycling plants, where “Dirty Oil Technology-Acid Clay Technology” is used for recycling of dirty/waste lubricating oil.
The used/waste oil collected in these plants are filled into a large crucibles 98% concentrated sulphuric acid nine percent by volume of the waste/dirty oil quantity by volume is added; sodium carbonate (washing soda) is added into the crucible and 7-8% of bleaching earth is added and then heated to 130-135 degrees centigrade.
Then polychlorobiphenyles (PCBs) and/ or Polychloroterphenyles (PTBs) is added to obtain lubricating oil. The so obtained lubricating oil contains PCB/PTB that is imperative to be removed. There is no provision for the removal of these hazardous Compounds from the lubricating oil obtained by such a process. Furthermore, the so Obtained residue/sludge which contains entire concentrated acid PCBs/PTBs without any neutralization process is sold to brick kilns. An approximate of 2.1 million tons/per year of such hazardous residue/sludge obtained during the process of obtaining lubricating oil from lub.oil base oils and dirty/waste oil.
These residues are mixed with saw dust/husk and are used in the brick kilns as fuel.
The maximum temperature of brick kilns is between 600-800 degrees centigrade which is not sufficient enough to destroy the hazardous effect of the ashes so obtained; as a matter of fact the harmful effects can only be removed/destroyed in incinerators where
The temperatures are in the range of 1500-1600 degrees centigrade.
The most deadly ashes obtained from the brick kilns pave their way through rain water and water ways into the ground; polluting almost all fresh water and subsequently enter into the food chain and entire agricultural products. Almost the entire fresh water is polluted and is unsuitable for living beings consumption; it pollutes air and is responsible for spread of diseases like cancer of liver, lungs, stomach, and several diseases of stomach, diarrhea, vomiting, difficulties of breathing, allergy, skin diseases etc.
A senior steward (Secretary), holder of a doctorate degree of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources issued a S.R.O-1291 (1)/99 dated November 11, 1999 while taking cognizance of this deadly spread of the diseases, pollution of air and water chain by issuance of directives for “Setting up of vacuum distillation units in all the plants approved or registered with the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources.
In 1999 there were some seventy plants registered/approved by the Ministry whereas today there is a mushroom growth of such deadly plants.
It is regretful to note that the able steward of the Ministry is ignorant “Non-Acid High Vacuum Distillation plant” which is the only way to eliminate PCBs and PTBs and the language of the S,R.O. is so misleading and wrongly drafted that the plants procured a toy like worthless unit, totally unsuitable for elimination of PCBs and PTBs; but the ignorant steward to the GOP are happy to claim that they have taken corrective steps but the fact remains that there is no stoppage to the spread of deadly diseases, air pollution and severe pollution of fresh water.
We suggest to issue immediate directives for setting up “Non-Acid High Vacuum Distillation Units” in all the plants for obtaining lubricating oil; else wise the poor classes who are more prone to these deadly diseases will soon die thereby elimination of the poor and subsequently poverty from Pakistan in line with the policy of the GOP.
The only way to curb this evil is the use of “Clean Oil Technology” which is in use worldwide. How funny that under such circumstances the GOP celebrates with pledge “Earth Day” to conserve environment. This is a mockery of the highest order.